πŒ·πŒΉπŒ»π€πŒ°:Starter's guide

π†π‚πŒ°πŒΌ Wikipedia

Welcome to the Gothic Wikipedia! This guide will help you get started with contributing here. It is recommended that you thoroughly read this guide before contributing to this wiki as you might get lost without it.

This guide also contains information on where to apply for adminship, how to add categories, good resources etc.

How to write an article[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Articles on the Gothic Wikipedia must be written in the Gothic script. They also have to have a title in the Gothic script. For instructions on how to do this, see the next paragraph. Articles which are written in Roman script, or have a title in Roman script, should be deleted. The use of Roman script or any other script is only allowed when it's necessary, for example when showing a phrase in Latin, or showing a translation in Latin of a word, but a title is never allowed to be in any other script than Gothic because this is the Gothic Wikipedia.

Adding 'See also'[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

See also is translated as "Sai jah" in Gothic. Add:

==πƒπŒ°πŒΉ 𐌾𐌰𐌷== with the articles which are related to the article which you wrote.

Adding categories[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

T Under the content of the article, either add [[Category: ]] or [[πŒ·πŒ°πŒ½πƒπŒ°: ]]

List of categories (make sure that you add them in the Gothic script):

English Gothic
Alphabet πŒ±π‰πŒΊπŒ°π„πŒ΄π…πŒ°
Belief πŒ²πŒ°πŒ»πŒ°πŒΏπŒ±πŒ΄πŒΉπŒ½πƒ
Birds π†πŒΏπŒ²πŒ»πƒ
Jews πŒΉπŒΏπŒ³πŒ°πŒΉπŒ΄πŒΉπƒ
Kingdom πŒΈπŒΉπŒΏπŒ³πŒ°πŒ½πŒ²πŒ°π‚πŒ³πŒΉ

How to write in the Gothic script[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

There are a few suggested methods as to how to do this outlined below.

Method 1[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Download or set a Gothic keyboard and write with it.

Windows

To set the Gothic keyboard for Windows, see Microsoft - Default Input Locale

Or download MultiKey, which also works for older versions of Windows.

Mac

To download a Gothic keyboard for Mac, go to Weihos bokos - Gothic keyboard layout for Mac

Not everyone has access to this, especially on Android devices; therefore Method 2 might be more suitable.

Method 2[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

First, write your article in the Latin script; take care to not add special symbols.

Next, create your article if you are done or think it is good enough.

You should now see the script converter above your article; it should read: [Latinska] [Diacritics] [πŒ²πŒΏπ„πŒΉπƒπŒΊπŒ°] (possibly in blocks)

Press πŒ²πŒΏπ„πŒΉπƒπŒΊπŒ° (Gutiska). Doing so will convert the contents of your article to the Gothic script; copy it, click the Edit button at the top of the page, select the entirety of the article, and paste the Gothic text into the article, replacing the Latin script text.

Do the same for the title, in πŒΌπŒ°πŒΉπƒ (Mais), press Move, and then replace the Latin text with the title in Gothic.

Now your article should be in the Gothic script.

Unfortunately, this workaround has to be used for the time being; we are still working on a Gothic keyboard for Wikipedia.

Method 3[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Go to Gothic keyboard

You can also find a virtual online Gothic keyboard at: Virtualboard

When you're finished, copy your text and paste it to the article. It is necessary to be able to display Gothic unicode to use this.

Method 4[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Go to this website.

It has a converter which enables you to convert Roman to Gothic or Gothic to Roman script. There is one downside, which is that breaks aren't correctly processed and displayed as
.

How to enable the Gothic font[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you only see blocks or do not like the standard font in use, you can use the Skeirs font, which was designed for the Gothic Wikipedia by Robert Pfeffer. For instructions on how to use it, see our special page How to enable the Gothic font. You will need a registered account.

If you want the Skeirs font to be always be used, you will need to select it in your account; if you do not want it to be used as the default font, de-select it.

You can also download the Gothic font add-on. gothic font converter

How to convert names and place names to Gothic[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Gothic has differing writing conventions, but it is easy to get the hang of them. Place names need to be written with these conventions; Jerusalem is, for example, Iairusalems in Biblical Gothic. Here are the basic rules for converting sounds; sounds that are not mentioned below are written in the same way:

English letters Pronunciation in English Gothic equivalent Example
oo as in look u Iairusalems (jerusalem)
o o as in or (short) au Appaullo (Appollo)
yo yo as in York iau Iauhannes (John)
ay ay as in say
(but without the final y in Gothic)
e Eleiaizair (Eliezer)
e E as in west or awaken ai Bairauja (Beroja)
ee ee as in see ei Galeilaia (Galilea)
o o as in so (long) o Farao (Farao)
u u as in Utah iu Iudas (Judas)
ow o as in how aw Pawlus (Paul)

Of course there are also vowels which don't occur in English, but do occur in other languages. Some of the most prevalent foreign vowels are:

  • eu, like in French fleur or the eu from ancient Greek, both should be transcribed as: aiw.
  • ΓΌ like in German 'wΓΌrde', this sound is in swedish existant in for example 'u' grom 'utan' and in Dutch written as 'uu', it also occurs in French in words like 'dur' as the u in it. In Gothic this sound is transcribed as 'w'.

For a more extensive list, go to: writing foreign words and names.

Now let's apply these rules to some place names.

Use the place name in the original language and only reconstruct it if it is not attested in Gothic. Remember that v in many modern country and place names was usually changed to b in Gothic. Always try to use the 4th-century form of the most distant classic etymology of a place if possible; so for Belgium use the Latin Belgia, which might have been comprehensible to the Goths.

  • Utah = Iutah
  • Washington = Wausjiggtaun (ng = Gothic gg)
  • York = Iaurk
  • Cork = Kaurk
  • Belgium = Bailgia
  • Slovenia = Slaubainja
  • Milwaukee = Milwaukei

Writing an article about a city or How to write your first article, for real beginners)[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

It is appreciated that people want to contribute with articles. If you don not know much Gothic, this might be a good way to start.

A is a (A stays untranslated in Gothic) city in B is translated as:

A ist baurgs in B

  • ist = is
  • baurgs = city
  • in = in (+ dative)

Gothic in takes the dative case here because it is being used to mark where something is. Country names with -ia have their dative forms ending in -iai; for example, in Bailgiai or in Makaidonjai. Country names that end with -land have the dative -landa: Krekalanda (Greece), for example; country names with -a have the dative -ai, like in Panamai.

So, if you wanted to write "Chicago is a city in the United States", that would be:

Sjeikago ist baurgs in Amairikai.

Or if you wanted to write "Lyon is a city in France", that would be:

Leiaun ist baurgs in Fragkalanda.

If you want to write capital city, baurgs becomes haubidabaurgs. Instead of in you use the genitive. For countries ending with -a or -ia you replace a with os. You replace -reiki with -reikjis and -land with -landis.

Now if you have a province or region, you replace baurgs with gawi.

Here is a list with countries, their Gothic form and the dative form in Gothic.

English Gothic Dative Gothic
England 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌹𐌻𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌳 𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌹𐌻𐌰𐌻𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌰
Greece πŒΊπ‚πŒ΄πŒΊπŒ°πŒ»πŒ°πŒ½πŒ³ πŒΊπ‚πŒ΄πŒΊπŒ°πŒ»πŒ°πŒ½πŒ³πŒ°
Israel πŒΉπƒπ‚πŒ°πŒ΄πŒ» πŒΉπƒπ‚πŒ°πŒ΄πŒ»πŒ°
Japan πŒΎπŒ°π€πŒ°πŒ½ πŒΎπŒ°π€πŒ°πŒ½

Here is a list with attested cities and provinces in Gothic, categorized in countries. If it's in red, it means that there doesn't exist an article for it yet and that you could create one if you want. If a city or province contains 'ancient', is should be replaced with was.

Croatia (Gothic = kroatia):

Greece:

Phrygia (Gothic = Frigia)

Macedonia (Gothic = Makaidonja)

Here are reconstructed city names for which no article exists yet:

Albania:

Czech republic, (Gothic: Tseiaisko):

Welcome to the Gothic Wikipedia! This guide will help you get started with contributing here. It is recommended that you thoroughly read this guide before contributing to this wiki as you might get lost without it.

This guide also contains information on where to apply for adminship, how to add categories, good resources etc.

Help, phrases and tips for writing articles[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you don't really know Gothic well yet, but would like to start writing some articles already, here is some help.

to be[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

What you will often need is to use he/she/it is or they are.

  • he/she/it is = ist
  • they are = sind

The past tense is:

  • he/she/it was = was
  • they were = wesun

As you can see I left out the personal pronouns, these are usually left away in Gothic.

What if we would want to write what a person is? Here is a list of some professions and functions of people in Gothic, (I use asteriks here, but in Wikipedia aprticles you shouldn't use them):

  • actor = *fairweitlands (m. Nd)
  • actress = *fairweitlandi (f. Jo)
  • banker = skattja (m. N) / *skattjo (f. N)
  • king = ΓΎiudans (m. A)
  • linguist = *razdaleis (m. A) / *razdaleisa (f. O)
  • prophet = praufetes (m. U)
  • researcher = sokareis (m. Ja) / *sokari (f. Jo)
  • ruler = reiks (m. Noun)
  • writer = bokareis (male, ja-stem) / bokari (female, jo-stem)

So if we would want to write: Oscar Wilde was a writer, you first have to know how to transcribe Oscar, you learned above that a short o is written as 'au', so you have to use the o, and c is pronounced as k and doesn't even occur in the Gothic alphabet, so this becomes k, thus auskar. For Wilde you can choose to etymologically translate it, wilΓΎeis, or transcribe it: waeild, as the i is pronounced as a-ee, you write a + ei = aei.

Now if you write Oscar Wilde was a writer that becomes:

  • Auskar Waeild was bokareis.

countries[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Gothic has its own word for 'to border', 'gamarkon', to translate 'it borders', you use: gamarkoΓΎ. So 'It borders Italia' would become:

  • gamarkoΓΎ Itaalja.

People[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

When writing articles about people, you might want to use some of these phrases:


  • he/she was born in = warΓΎ in ... + dative (can be both for space and time)
  • he/she was born in the year ... = warΓΎ in jera ...
  • He/she died in .... = gaswalt in ... + dative (can be both for space and time)
  • he/she died in the year ... = gaswalt in jera ...
  • he/she has one child = aihtiΓΎ ain barn.
  • he/she had one child = aihta ain barn.
  • he/she has ... childdren = aihti ... barna
  • he/she had .... children = aihta ... barna
  • he/she is called = haitada
  • they are called = haitanda

Numbers[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

Gothic uses its own system for numbers. Gothic uses the symbol β€’ before and after the number and uses letters to transcribe numbers. So 1 for example is 'a' and written in Gothic 1 would be β€’aβ€’. Here is a list with Gothic transcriptions of numbers:

Gothic English
β€’πŒ°β€’ 1
β€’πŒ±β€’ 2
β€’πŒ²β€’ 3
β€’πŒ³β€’ 4
β€’πŒ΄β€’ 5
β€’πŒ΅β€’ 6
β€’πŒΆβ€’ 7
β€’πŒ·β€’ 8
β€’πŒΈβ€’ 9
β€’πŒΉβ€’ 10
β€’πŒΊβ€’ 20
β€’πŒ»β€’ 30
β€’πŒΌβ€’ 40
β€’πŒ½β€’ 50
β€’πŒΎβ€’ 60
β€’πŒΏβ€’ 70
‒𐍀‒ 80
‒𐍁‒ 90
‒𐍂‒ 100
‒𐍃‒ 200
‒𐍄‒ 300
‒𐍅‒ 400
‒𐍆‒ 500
‒𐍇‒ 600
β€’πˆβ€’ 700
‒𐍉‒ 800
β€’πŠβ€’ 900


In Gothic, numbers like 14 are formed by the decimal + the number under 10, so 14 = 10 + 4, which are the letter values i + d = β€’idβ€’ For numbers above hundred you first use the number of hundred, then the decimal and then the number under 10. So 539 for example is 500 + 30 + 9, these are the letter values f + l + h = β€’flhβ€’. In Gothic numbers above the 1000 aren't attested. The best solution is to use the ancient Greek counting system which Wulfila used for this Gothic counting system too. By adding the symbol ΚΉ after a number, the first number under 10 becomes multiplied by 1000, so 2011 for example would become: 2 + 10 + 1 = b + i + a + ΚΉ = β€’biaΚΉβ€’.

Popular names in Gothic[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If a name is of Grermanic origin or an attested word of Latin, Greek or Hebrew origin, it is recommended to use these first names in an article which you write. Here you can find a list of popular names in Gothic:

English Gothic
HroΓΎibairhts
Stan Stains

Dictionaries[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

When writing an article in Gothic, a good dictionary is necessary. You could use this one, which is especially designed for this purpose:

Or you could use the KΓΆbler dictionary; it contains many reconstructions, but is one of the best free online dictionaries for translation purposes.

Where to learn Gothic[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you don't know Gothic yet, it's necessary to study Gothic basic grammar first before you contribute here.

A special course is written on this Wikipedia to teach you to translate and learn the basics rapidly: Starters course.

You could start with studying the Gothic declensions and Gothic verbs.

A very good course consisting of 10 lessons to get you started is the Gothic course from the University of Texas.

There is also a Memrise course to learn Gothic: The Gothic Language.

Genders and stems of neologisms[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

You might have trouble with genders and stems for neologisms, there are however rules for new words, as Wulfila included new words too. In this we differ between place names, names and otyer nouns.

City names[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

The rules are:

  1. -ia is declined as a -jo stem.
  2. -a is declined as an o-stem.
  3. -us is declined as an u-stem.
  4. Consonant + -em is the same in all cases, except for genitive -ems.

Other nouns[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

It differs based on what it's reconstructed of. If it's from Proto-Germanic, it's recommended to keep the same gender.

If it's from a language like English or Spanish use the following rules:

  • The gender should be the same as in the original language. So for example tapas from Spanish is las tapas, so use a feminine gender.
  • Masculine words with final -a should be declined as (m. N) words.
  • Feminine words with final -a should be declined as (f. O) words.
  • Words for professions and people doing something like butcher (skilja) and sel.er (frabuugja) are declined like (m. N) if the accompAnying verb is -jan. If the accompanying verb is -an, like in gibands (giver, verb: giban) or -on like in frijonds (friend, verb: frijon) it's declined like a masculine consonant stem.
  • Words with a consonant + u should be declined as (n. U) words.
  • Words, regardless of masculine or feminine gender with -us, shouold be declined as (U) words.
  • Words with -jo or in the original language -io or -ion are declined as (f. N) words in Gothic with the form -jo. So for example Greek Ρὐαγγέλιον becomes aiwaggeljo (f. N).
  • Words with -x or -ks become -ks and should be declined as (m. Consonant) words.
  • When borrowing from Latin, in -ium words the -um part is left out and in -us word the final -us is missing in Gothic, like in aket, akeit (vinegar) from Latin acetum.
  • An accented Γ­ in Greek becomes j in Gothic.
  • Words with -ar are declined as (m. A) stems, compare kaisar.
  • Words with -kn are declined as (n. A) stems, compare kelikn.


People from countries[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

When the country has the ending -ia in Latin, people generally have m. (U/I) stems (u-declension in singular, i-declension in plural).

Compare:

  • Iudaia - iudaius (m. U/I)

How to get your article on the frontpage rotation[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

The frontpage article rotates, this means that your article might be shown in some weeks once on the frontpage.

Here are the things which a frontpage article must have:

  • A good quality (no basic grammar errors)
  • A length of a few paragraphs. (An article with one phrase can't be on the frontpage)
  • Pictures which fit the article
  • Categories added are prefered
  • A good style, so for example using bold and italic text where it is expected.

Once you think your article is good enough, add it here:

Page gallery.

If there's enough agreement or if an admin accepts it, it can be added.

Adminship[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you want to become an admin because you want to help this Wikipedia by removing bad articles, cleaning it up, maintaining it, and countering spam or because you have some other good motivation, you can apply for adminship here:

Admin candidatures

After that, you have to add your application here (referring to the previous link when you apply):

Steward Requests

Please, keep in mind, if you are new to this community, you will need a very good reason to be accepted and will not be granted permission if there is not enough community support.

Admins[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you are an Admin, please consult the Admin guide to be informed about your tasks and what you can do.

Other ways to contribute to this wiki[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

  • Adding images to articles

Popular names in Gothic[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If a name is of Grermanic origin or an attested word of Latin, Greek or Hebrew origin, it is recommended to use these first names in an article which you write. Here you can find a list of popular names in Gothic:

English Gothic
HroΓΎibairhts
Stan Stains

Dictionaries[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

When writing an article in Gothic, a good dictionary is necessary. You could use this one, which is especially designed for this purpose:

Or you could use the KΓΆbler dictionary; it contains many reconstructions, but is one of the best free online dictionaries for translation purposes.

Where to learn Gothic[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you don't know Gothic yet, it's necessary to study Gothic basic grammar first before you contribute here. You could start with studying the Gothic declensions and Gothic verbs.

A very good course consisting of 10 lessons to get you started is the Gothic course from the University of Texas.

There is also a Memrise course to learn Gothic: The Gothic Language.

Genders and stems of neologisms[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

You might have trouble with genders and stems for neologisms, there are however rules for new words, as Wulfila included new words too. In this we differ between place names, names and otyer nouns.

City names[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

The rules are:

  1. -ia is declined as a -jo stem.
  2. -a is declined as an o-stem.
  3. -us is declined as an u-stem.
  4. Consonant + -em is the same in all cases, except for genitive -ems.

Other nouns[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

It differs based on what it's reconstructed of. If it's from Proto-Germanic, it's recommended to keep the same gender.

If it's from a language like English or Spanish use the following rules:

  • The gender should be the same as in the original language. So for example tapas from Spanish is las tapas, so use a feminine gender.
  • Masculine words with final -a should be declined as (m. N) words.
  • Feminine words with final -a should be declined as (f. O) words.
  • Words for professions and people doing something like butcher (skilja) and sel.er (frabuugja) are declined like (m. N) if the accompAnying verb is -jan. If the accompanying verb is -an, like in gibands (giver, verb: giban) or -on like in frijonds (friend, verb: frijon) it's declined like a masculine consonant stem.
  • Words with a consonant + u should be declined as (n. U) words.
  • Words, regardless of masculine or feminine gender with -us, shouold be declined as (U) words.
  • Words with -jo or in the original language -io or -ion are declined as (f. N) words in Gothic with the form -jo. So for example Greek Ρὐαγγέλιον becomes aiwaggeljo (f. N).
  • Words with -x or -ks become -ks and should be declined as (m. Consonant) words.
  • When borrowing from Latin, in -ium words the -um part is left out and in -us word the final -us is missing in Gothic, like in aket, akeit (vinegar) from Latin acetum.
  • An accented Γ­ in Greek becomes j in Gothic.
  • Words with -ar are declined as (m. A) stems, compare kaisar.
  • Words with -kn are declined as (n. A) stems, compare kelikn.


People from countries[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

When the country has the ending -ia in Latin, people generally have m. (U/I) stems (u-declension in singular, i-declension in plural).

Compare:

  • Iudaia - iudaius (m. U/I)

How to get your article on the frontpage rotation[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

The frontpage article rotates, this means that your article might be shown in some weeks once on the frontpage.

Here are the things which a frontpage article must have:

  • A good quality (no basic grammar errors)
  • A length of a few paragraphs. (An article with one phrase can't be on the frontpage)
  • Pictures which fit the article
  • Categories added are prefered
  • A good style, so for example using bold and italic text where it is expected.

Once you think your article is good enough, add it here:

Page gallery.

If there's enough agreement or if an admin accepts it, it can be added.

Adminship[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you want to become an admin because you want to help this Wikipedia by removing bad articles, cleaning it up, maintaining it, and countering spam or because you have some other good motivation, you can apply for adminship here:

https://got.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Admin_candidatures

After that, you have to add your application here (referring to the previous link when you apply):

[requests]

Please, keep in mind, if you are new to this community, you will need a very good reason to be accepted and will not be granted permission if there is not enough community support.

Being an admin[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

If you are an Admin, please consult the Admin guide to be informed about your tasks and what you can do.

Other ways to contribute to this wiki[𐌹𐌽𐌼𐌰𐌹𐌳𐌴𐌹]

  • Adding images to articles
𐌲𐌰𐌽𐌿𐌼𐌰𐌽 π†π‚πŒ°πŒΌ "https://got.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=πŒ·πŒΉπŒ»π€πŒ°:Starter%27s_guide&oldid=38387"